MySQL is an open-source relational database management system (RDBMS). I had always preferred PostgreSQL but there are some reasons you can not avoid MySQL (more on this later). Here are the following steps I followed to get started with MySQL on ubuntu.
Step#1 Update Ubuntu
Before installation of any new package, it is good practice to update the OS.
$ sudo apt-get update [sudo] password for conquistadorjd: Hit:1 http://dl.google.com/linux/chrome/deb stable InRelease Hit:2 http://in.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu focal InRelease Hit:3 http://packages.microsoft.com/repos/code stable InRelease Get:4 http://in.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu focal-updates InRelease [114 kB] Get:5 http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu focal-security InRelease [114 kB] Get:6 http://in.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu focal-backports InRelease [101 kB] Get:7 http://in.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu focal-updates/main amd64 Packages [990 kB] Get:8 http://in.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu focal-updates/main amd64 DEP-11 Metadata [274 kB] Get:9 http://in.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu focal-updates/universe amd64 DEP-11 Metadata [323 kB] Get:10 http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu focal-security/main amd64 DEP-11 Metadata [24.5 kB] Get:11 http://in.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu focal-updates/multiverse amd64 DEP-11 Metadata [2,468 B] Get:12 http://in.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu focal-backports/universe amd64 DEP-11 Metadata [1,768 B] Get:13 https://ftp.postgresql.org/pub/pgadmin/pgadmin4/apt/focal pgadmin4 InRelease [4,217 B] Get:14 http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu focal-security/universe amd64 DEP-11 Metadata [58.2 kB] Get:15 http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu focal-security/multiverse amd64 DEP-11 Metadata [2,464 B] Fetched 2,009 kB in 3s (575 kB/s) Reading package lists... Done
Step#2 Install MySQL server
Run the following command to configure some of the important options and also to set
$ sudo apt-get install mysql-server Reading package lists... Done Building dependency tree Reading state information... Done The following additional packages will be installed: libaio1 libcgi-fast-perl libcgi-pm-perl libevent-core-2.1-7 libevent-pthreads-2.1-7 libfcgi-perl libhtml-template-perl libmecab2 mecab-ipadic mecab-ipadic-utf8 mecab-utils mysql-client-8.0 mysql-client-core-8.0 mysql-server-8.0 mysql-server-core-8.0 Suggested packages: libipc-sharedcache-perl mailx tinyca The following NEW packages will be installed: libaio1 libcgi-fast-perl libcgi-pm-perl libevent-core-2.1-7 libevent-pthreads-2.1-7 libfcgi-perl libhtml-template-perl libmecab2 mecab-ipadic mecab-ipadic-utf8 mecab-utils mysql-client-8.0 mysql-client- .. .. .. emitting double-array: 100% |###########################################| reading /usr/share/mecab/dic/ipadic/matrix.def ... 1316x1316 emitting matrix : 100% |###########################################| done! update-alternatives: using /var/lib/mecab/dic/ipadic-utf8 to provide /var/lib/mecab/dic/debian (mecab-dictionary) in auto mode Setting up mysql-server-8.0 (8.0.25-0ubuntu0.20.04.1) ... update-alternatives: using /etc/mysql/mysql.cnf to provide /etc/mysql/my.cnf (my.cnf) in auto mode Renaming removed key_buffer and myisam-recover options (if present) mysqld will log errors to /var/log/mysql/error.log mysqld is running as pid 11200 Created symlink /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/mysql.service → /lib/systemd/system/mysql.service. Setting up mysql-server (8.0.25-0ubuntu0.20.04.1) ... Processing triggers for systemd (245.4-4ubuntu3.6) ... Processing triggers for man-db (2.9.1-1) ... Processing triggers for libc-bin (2.31-0ubuntu9.2) ...
Once installation is done, you can check the if MySQL process has started using following command
systemctl status mysql ● mysql.service - MySQL Community Server Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/mysql.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled) Active: active (running) since Sun 2021-05-30 10:46:34 IST; 13s ago Main PID: 11439 (mysqld) Status: "Server is operational" Tasks: 38 (limit: 18908) Memory: 334.3M CGroup: /system.slice/mysql.service └─11439 /usr/sbin/mysqld May 30 10:46:34 nova systemd: Starting MySQL Community Server... May 30 10:46:34 nova systemd: Started MySQL Community Server.
You can check the version of MySQL using following command
$ mysql -V mysql Ver 8.0.25-0ubuntu0.20.04.1 for Linux on x86_64 ((Ubuntu))
Step#3 Secure MySQL installation
Once installation is completed, you need to set configuration parameters using below command. This will also set up your password policy and root password. Please use this with sudo
$ sudo mysql_secure_installation Securing the MySQL server deployment. Connecting to MySQL using a blank password. VALIDATE PASSWORD COMPONENT can be used to test passwords and improve security. It checks the strength of password and allows the users to set only those passwords which are secure enough. Would you like to setup VALIDATE PASSWORD component? Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No: y There are three levels of password validation policy: LOW Length >= 8 MEDIUM Length >= 8, numeric, mixed case, and special characters STRONG Length >= 8, numeric, mixed case, special characters and dictionary file Please enter 0 = LOW, 1 = MEDIUM and 2 = STRONG: 1 Please set the password for root here. New password: Re-enter new password: Estimated strength of the password: 100 Do you wish to continue with the password provided?(Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : y By default, a MySQL installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone to log into MySQL without having to have a user account created for them. This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation go a bit smoother. You should remove them before moving into a production environment. Remove anonymous users? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : y Success. Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from 'localhost'. This ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network. Disallow root login remotely? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : n ... skipping. By default, MySQL comes with a database named 'test' that anyone can access. This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed before moving into a production environment. Remove test database and access to it? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : n ... skipping. Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far will take effect immediately. Reload privilege tables now? (Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : y Success. All done!
Even though we have setup root password in above step, we will not be able to login using root password.
ubuntu@ip-172-31-35-254:~$ mysql -u root -p Enter password: ERROR 1698 (28000): Access denied for user 'root'@'localhost'
I don’t know the exact reason, but possibility due to type of access or security reasons.
mysql> select host, user, plugin from mysql.user; +-----------+------------------+-----------------------+ | host | user | plugin | +-----------+------------------+-----------------------+ | localhost | debian-sys-maint | caching_sha2_password | | localhost | mysql.infoschema | caching_sha2_password | | localhost | mysql.session | caching_sha2_password | | localhost | mysql.sys | caching_sha2_password | | localhost | root | mysql_native_password | +-----------+------------------+-----------------------+
After installation default userid and password can be viewed by using following command
$sudo cat /etc/mysql/debian.cnf [client] host = localhost user = debian-sys-maint password = XXX socket = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock [mysql_upgrade] host = localhost user = debian-sys-maint password = XXX socket = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
Now Login using above userid and password and run following command to start using root user.
ubuntu@ip-172-31-35-254:~$ mysql --host=localhost --user=debian-sys-maint --password=XXX mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure. Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or \g. Your MySQL connection id is 12 Server version: 8.0.25-0ubuntu0.20.04.1 (Ubuntu) Copyright (c) 2000, 2021, Oracle and/or its affiliates. Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement. mysql> ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED WITH mysql_native_password BY 'NewPassword@41'; Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec) mysql> exit; Bye
Now MySQL server installation and root access, you have full authority to create new users or databases as per your requirement.
Hope this is helpful. If you need any clarification, feel free you let me know. Thanks !